Black Hawk War: Further Study Material

If you are interested in learning more about Black Hawk, the Sauks and Foxes, and the Black Hawk War, you might want to begin with these works:

  • William T. Hagan, The Sac and Fox Indians (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1958). Though a bit dated now, this work still provides a very useful discussion of the Sauks and Foxes, including their histories after the Black Hawk War.
  • Donald Jackson, ed., Black Hawk: An Autobiography (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1955). There are numerous editions of Black Hawk's autobiography dating back to the 1830s; this one is perhaps the most readily available at present and includes a very helpful introduction.
  • Roger L. Nichols, Black Hawk and the Warrior's Path (Wheeling, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, Inc., 1992). This biography uses the story of Black Hawk's life to discuss the Sauks and Foxes and the Black Hawk War. It is thoroughly researched and clearly written.
  • Francis Paul Prucha, The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians, 2 vols. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984). This book provides a solid, general overview of federal policy toward Native Americans. As such, it is very valuable for placing the federal government's evolving policies toward the Sauks and Foxes in context.
  • William F. Stark, Along the Black Hawk Trail (Sheboygan, Wisc.: Zimmerman Press, 1984). This book would be especially useful for people interested in visiting the various places that figured in the Black Hawk War. Unfortunately, it is difficult to find.
  • Ellen M. Whitney, ed., The Black Hawk War, 1831-1832, 3 vols. (Springfield: Illinois State Historical Society, 1970). These volumes reprint literally hundreds of letters, militia muster rolls, and other documents generated by the Black Hawk War, particularly in Illinois. The introductory essay by Anthony F. C. Wallace presents a brief account of the events that led up to the conflict.

Bibliography

Allaman, John L. "Incidents in the life of an Old Pioneer: The Memoirs of Field Jarvis," Western Illinois Regional Studies 9 (1980) 5-18.

An Account of the Indian Chief Black Hawk and his Tribes, the Sac and Fox Indians, with affecting narrative of a Lady who was taken Prisoner by the Indians. Philadelphia : N.p.,1834.

Anderson, Robert. "Reminiscences of the Black Hawk War," Wisconsin Historical Society Collections 10 (1888) : 167-176.

Anderson, Robert. "Letter to E.B. Washburne, dated Tours, France, May 10, 187 Illinois State Historical Society Journal 10 (1917) : 422-428.

Biddle, James W. "Account of the Battle of Pekatonica," Wisconsin Historical Society Collections 4 (1859) : 85-87.

Black Hawk. Black Hawk (Ma-Ka-Tai-Me-She-Kia-Kiak) : An Autobiography. Edited by Donald Jackson. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1955.

Breese, Sidney S., ed. "Reminiscences of the Black Hawk War" An interesting letter from General Robert Anderson to E.B. Washburn," Illinois State Historical Society Journal 10 (1917-1918) : 421-428

Brown, Ebenezer. "Autobiographical Notes," Michigan Pioneer 30 (1906) : 424-494.

Brunson, Alfred. "Memoir of T. P. Burnett," Wisconsin Historical Society Collections 2 (1856) : 233-325. 

Burton, Charles M. "The Black Hawk War papers of General John R. William," Michigan Pioneer 31 (1902) : 313-471.

Chetlain, Augustus L. Recollections of Seventy Years. Galena, IL : Galena Publishing Co., 1899, 17-23.

Childs, Ebenezer. "Recollections of Wisconsin since 1820," Wisconsin Historical Society Collections 4 (1859) : 153-95.

Elliott, Richard S. Notes Taken in Sixty Years. St. Louis : R. P. Studley, 1883.

Ellsworth, Spencer. Records of the Olden Time, or Fifty Years on the Prairies. Lacon, IL : Home Journal Steam Printing, 1880, 98-112.

Ford, Thomas. A History of Illinois, from its Commencement as a State in 1818 to 1847. New York : Ivison, Pinney, 1854, 109-65.

Grignon, Augustin. "Seventy-Two years Recollection of Wisconsin," Wisconsin Historical Society Collections 3 (1857) : 197-296.

Hobart, Chauncey. Recollections of my Life: Fifty Years of Itinerary in the Northwest. Red Wing, MN: Red Wing Print Co., 1885

Hollman, Frederick G. The Autobiography of Frederick G. Hollman. Platteville, WS: R. I. Dugdale, n.d. At Wisconsin Historical Society.

Iles, Elijah. Sketches of Early Life and Times in Kentucky, Missouri, and Illinois. Springfield, IL: Springfield Print Co., 1883.

"Indian Campaign of 1832." Military and Naval Magazine 1 (1833) : 321-33.

Jackson, Donald, ed. Black Hawk: An Autobiography. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1955.

Kingston, John T. "Early Western Days," Wisconsin Historical Society Proceedings 7 (1876) : 297-344.

Lowrie, Walter, et al., eds. American State Papers: Indian Affairs. 2 vols. Washington, D.C.: Gales and Seaton, 1832-1834.

Lowrie, Walter, et al., eds. American State Papers: Military Affairs. 7 vols. Washington, D.C.: Gales and Seaton, 1832-1861.

Lewis, Hannah. Narrative of the Captivity and Providential Escape of Mrs. Jane Lewis. New York: N.P., 1833.

Marsh, Cutting. "Extracts from Marsh's Journal. during the Black Hawk War," Wisconsin Historical Society Collections 15 (1900): 60-65.

"Narrative of Alexis Clermont," Wisconsin Historical Society Collections 15 (1900): 452-57.

Narrative of the Capture and Providential Escape of Misses Frances and Almira Hall, two Respectable young Women of the ages of 16 and 18, who were taken Prisoners by the Savages at a Frontier Settlement near Indian Creek, in May, 1832. New York: N.p., 1835.

Nichols, Roger L. ed. "The Battle of Bad Axe: General Atkinson's Report." Wisconsin Magazine of History 50 (Autumn 1966) : 54-58.

"Notes and Reminiscences of an officer of the Army," Army and Navy Chronicle 11 (1840): 282-84.

Orr, William. "The Indian War,: Illinois State Historical Society Journal 5 (1912): 66-79.

Parkinson, Daniel M. "Pioneer Life in Wisconsin," Wisconsin Historical Society Collections 2 (1856): 326-64.

"Reminiscences of Black Hawk and the Black Hawk War," Wisconsin Historical Society Collections 5 (1867-1869): 287-90.

"Reminiscences of Wisconsin in 1833," Wisconsin Historical Society Collections 10 (1888): 231-34.

Reynolds, John. My Own Times, Embracing also the History of My Life. Belleville, IL: H.L. Davidson, 1855, 349-416.

Smith, Henry. "Indian Campaign of 1832," Wisconsin Historical Society Collections 10 (1888): 150-66.

Spencer, John W. Reminiscences of Pioneer Life in the Mississippi Valley. Davenport, IA: Watson, Day, 1872.

"A Voyage on the Upper Mississippi," Military and Naval Magazine 3 (1834): 245-52, 349-57.

St. Vrain, Felix. "A Diary of the Black Hawk War," Iowa Journal of History and Politics 8 (1910): 265-69.

Whitney, Ellen M., ed. The Black Hawk War, 1831-1832. 3 vols. Springfield: Illinois State Historical Society, 1970.

Published Secondary Material

Abel, Annie H. "The History of Events Resulting in Indian Consolidation West of the Mississippi." Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1906. Washington, D.C.,  1907.

Allen, Robert S. His Majesty's Indian Allies: British Indian Policy in the Defense of Canada, 1774-1815. Toronto, Can.: Dundurn Press, 1992.

Armstrong, Perry A. The Sauks and the Black Hawk War, with Biographical Sketches, etc. Springfield, IL: H.W. Rokker, 1887.

Atwood, John A. The Story of the Battle of Stillman's Run, fought at Stillman Valley, Illinois, May 14, 1832. Stillman Valley: J.A. Atwood, 1904.

Aumann, F.R., J.E. Briggs, and William J. Petersen. "Keokuk." Palimpsest 46 (May 1965) : 225 - 272.

Backus, Electus. "The War with the Sac and Fox Indians under Black Hawk in Illinois in 1832," Historical Magazine 2 (1873): 353-60.

Baldwin, Elmer. History of LaSalle County, Illinois. Chicago: Rand, McNally, 1877, 95-104.

Barton, Albert O. "Echoes of the Black Hawk War," Wisconsin Magazine of History 16 (1932-1933): 404-11.

Beckwith, Hiram W. "The Illinois and Indiana Indians," Fergus Historical Series No. 27 (1884): 99-183.

Beggs, Stephen R. Pages from the Early History of the West and Northwest. Cincinnati: Methodist Book Concern, 1868, 213-20.

Bicknell, A.D. "The Tama County Indians." Annals of Iowa, 3d series 4 (October 1899) : 196 - 208.

Biddle, James W. "Account of the Battle of Pekatonica," Wisconsin Historical Society Collections 4 (1859): 85-87.

"Black Hawk." Annals of Iowa 13 (October 1921): 126-131.

"Black Hawk War," Chronicles of the North American Savages 1 (1835): 28-32, 49-61.

"The Black Hawk War," Wisconsin Historical Society Collections 5 (1867): 285-320.

"Black Hawk's Fate. The Battle of Bad Axe." In: The Chicago Times, June 20, 1885.

Boss, Henry R. Sketches of the History of Ogle County, Illinois. Polo, IL: H.R. Boss, 1859, 36-49

Bracken, Charles and Peter Parkinson. "Pekatonica Battle Controversy," Wisconsin Historical Society Collections 2 (1855); 365-92.

Bracken, Charles. "Further Strictures on Governor Ford's History of Black Hawk War. " Annual Report and Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconscin 2 (1856): 402 - 414.

Briggs, John Ely. "The Sacs and Foxes." Palimpsest 9 (February 1928): 45-48.

Brown, Lizzie M. "The Pacification of the Indians of Illinois after the War of 1812." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 7 (January 1916): 550-58.

Brown, Orlando, ed. "Causes of the Black Hawk War," Ibid 10 (1888):223-26.

Buckner, E. "A Brief History of the War with the Sac and Fox Indians in Illinois and Michigan in 1832," Michigan Pioneer 12 (1887): 424-36.

Burford, C.C. "Abraham Lincoln and the American Indian in the Central West." Journal of the Illinois State Archaeological Society 6 (January 1949). 15-21.

Busby, Allie B. Two Summers among the Musquakies, Relating to the Early History of the Sac and Fox Tribe. Vinton Iowa: Herald Book and Job Rooms, 1886.

Brunson, Alfred. "Sketch of Hole-in-the-Day," Ibid 5 (1868): 387-99.

Buley, Carlyle. The Old Northwest. 2 Vols. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1951.

Calloway, Colin G "Beyond the Vortex of Violence: Indian-White Relations in the Ohio Country, 1783-1815." Northwest Ohio Quarterly 64 (Winter 1992): 16-26.

Calloway, Colin G. Crown and Calumet: British-Indian Relations, 1783-1815. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.

Calloway, Colin G. "The End of an Era: British-Indian Relations in the Great Lakes Region after the War of 1812." Michigan Historical Review 12 (Fall 1986): 1-20.

Channing, Edward. The Story of the Great Lakes. New York: Macmillan, 1909, 201-14.

"Chapters in Fox River Valley History," Wisconsin Historical Society Proceedings (1912): 146-220.

"Chief Poweshiek at Des Moines." Annals of Iowa 25 (July 1943): 58-60.

Clenens, Orion. City of Keokuk in 1856... also a Sketch of the Black Hawk War. Keokuk, IA: O.Clemens, 1856.

Coe, Edwin P. The Black Hawk Tragedy. N.p., 1896.

Cole, Cyrenus. A History of the People of Iowa. Cedar Rapids, IA;Torch Press, 1921, 81-113.

Cole, Cyrenus. Iowa Through the Years. Iowa City, IA: State Historical Society of Iowa, 1940, 63-98.

Cole, Cyrenus. I Am a Man:the Indian Black Hawk. Iowa City: State Historical Society of Iowa, 1938.

Currey, Joslah S. Chicago: its History and its Builders, a Century of Marvelous Growth. 5 Vols. Chicago: S.J. Clarke, 1912. Vol. 1, 185-200.

Dawson, Henry B. Battle of the United States. 2 Vols. New York: Johnson, Fry, 1858. Vol. 2, 426-39.

Dowd, Gregory Evans. A Spirited Resistance: The North American Indian Struggle for Unity, 1745-1815. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

Drake, Benjamin. The Life and Adventures of Black Hawk: With Sketches of Keokuk, the Sac and Fox Indians, and the Late Black Hawk War. Seventh edition.Cincinnati: George Conclin, 1849.

Duis, Etzard. The Good old Times in McLean County, Illinois. Bloomlngton, IL: Leader Publishing & Print House, 1874, 97-124.

Dunn, Julia M. Sau-ke-nuk, the Story of Black Hawk's Tower. Moline, IL: DeSaulniers, 1905.

Eby, Cecil. 'That Disgraceful Affair': The Black Hawk War. New York:W.W. Norton, 1973.

Eckert, Allan W. Twilight of Empire. Boston: Little, Brown, 1988.

Edmunds, R. David. Tecumseh and the Quest for Indian Leadership. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1984.

Efflandt, Lloyd H. The Black Hawk War, Why? Rock Island, IL: Rock Island Arsenal Historical Society, 1986.

Elliott, E.S. Black Hawk's Last Victory. Stillman Valley: N.p., 1900.

Elliott, Charles Winslow. "Winfield Scott and the Black hawk War." Infantry Journal 41 (September - October 1934): 333-337. 

Ferris, Ida M. "The Sauks and Foxes in Franklin and Osage Counties, Kansas." Collections of the Kansas State Historical Society 11 (1909-1910): 333-395.

Fisher, Kathy. "The Forgotten Dodge," Annals of Iowa 40 (1970):296-305.

Fitch, Matthew G. "The Battle of Peckatonica," Wisconsin Historical Society Collections 10 (1883-1885): 178-83.

Fixico, Don. "The Black Hawk-Keokuk Controversy," in Indian Leaders: Oklahoma's First Statesmen, ed. H. Glenn Jordan and Thomas M. Holm, 64-78. Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1979.

Ford, Thomas. A History of Illinois, from its Commencement as a States in 1818 to 1847. New York: Ivison, Pinney, 1854, 109-65.

Froncek, Thomas. '"I Was Once a Great Warrior.'" American Heritage 24 (December 1972): 16-21, 97-99.Chief Black Hawk.

Fulton, Alexander R. The Red Men of Iowa. Des Moines, IA: Mills & Co., 1882, 186-230.

Gallaher, Ruth A. "The Tama Indians." Palimpsest 7 (February 1926):44-53. Reprinted 38 (August 1957): 305-315; 48 (July 1967): 289-299.

Gearing, Frederick O. The Face of the Fox. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1970.

Gearing, Frederick O. "Today's Mesquakies." American Indian 7 (Spring 1955): 24-37.

Gilpin, Alec R. The War of 1812 in the Old Northwest. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1958.

Gray, Susan E. "Limits and Possibilities: White-Indian Relations in Western Michigan in the Era of Removal." Michigan Historical Review 20 (Fall 1994): 71-92.

Green, Michael D. The Politics of Removal: Creek Government and Society in Crisis. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982.

Green, C. R. Sac and Fox Indians in Kansas. Olathe, Kansas, 1914.

Green, Michael D. "The Sac-Fox -Annuity Crisis of 1840 in Iowa Territory. Arizona and the West 16 (Summer 1974): 141-156.

Gurko, Mirla B. Indian America, the Black Hawk War. New York: Crowell, 1970.

Hagan, William T. Black Hawk's Route through Wisconsin: Report of an Investigation made by Authority of the Legislature of Wisconsin. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1949.

Hagan, William T. "The Black Hawk War." Ph. D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1950.

Hagan, William T. "The Sauk and Fox Treaty of 1804." Missouri Historical Review 51 (October 1956): 1-7.

Hagan, William T. "The Dodge - Henry Controversy." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 50 (Winter 1957): 377 - 384.

Hagan, William T. The Sac and Fox Indians. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1958.

Hagan, William T. "General Henry Atkinson and the Militia." Military Affairs 23 (Winter 1959 - 1960) : 194 - 197.

Hagan, William T. "The Black Hawk War." In An Anthology of Western Great Lakes Indian History, ed. Donald L. Fixico, 271-91. Milwaukee, Wisc.: 1987.

Hallwas, John E. "Black Hawk: A Reassessment." Annals of Iowa 45 (Spring 1981): 599-619.

Hamilton, Holman, ed. "Zachary Taylor and the Black hawk War." Wisconsin Magazine of History 24 (March 1941) : 305 - 315.

Hamilton, Henry R. The Epic of Chicago. Chicago: Willett, dark, 1932, 183-210.

Hauberg, John H. The Black Hawk Watch Tower in the County of Rock Island, Slate of Illinois. Rock Island, IL: Duffill, 1925.

Hauberg, John H. "The Black Hawk War, 1831 - 1832." Illinois State Historical Society Transactions for the Year 1932, pp. 91-134.

Haydon, James R. Chicago's True Founder: Thomas J.V. Owen. Lombards Privately Printed, 1934, 78-118.

Homan, Harriet L. From Revolution to Massacre, with a Description in Word and Artistic Portrayal of the Indian Creek Massacre, May 20, 1832, An Incident in the Black Hawk War. Waterman, IL: Waterman Press, 1976.

Horsman, Reginald. Expansion and American Indian Policy, 1783-1812. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1967.

Horsman, Reginald. "American Indian Policy and the Origins of Manifest Destiny." University of Birmingham Historical Journal 11 (1968): 128-40.

Horsman, Reginald. The Origins of Indian Removal, 1815-1824. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1970.

Jackson, Donald. "Black Hawk:the Man and His Times." Palimpsest 43 (February 1962): 65-79.

Jackson, Donald and William J. Petersen. "The Black Hawk War," Palimpsest 43 (1962): 65-113.

Jackson, Donald. "Black Hawk -- the Last Campaign." Palimpsest 43 (February 1962): 80-94.

Jackson, Alfred A. "Abraham Lincoln in the Black Hawk War." Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 14 (1898): 118 - 136.

Jones, George W. "Robert S. Black and the Black Hawk War," Wisconsin Historical Society Collections 10 (1888): 229-31.

Jones, William. "Notes on the Fox Indians." Iowa Journal of History and Politics 10 (January 1912): 70-112.

Kellogg, Louise P. "Wisconsin Heights Battlefield," Wisconsin Magazine of History 1 (1923): 20-12, 28-31.

Lambert, Joseph I. "The Black hawk War: A Military Analysis." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 32 (December 1939): 442-473.

Lebron, Jeanne. "Colonel James W. Stephenson; Galena Pioneer," Ibid 35 (1942): 347-67.

Little, Henry. "A History of the Black Hawk War," Michigan Pioneer 5 (1882): 152-78.

Lonn, Ella. "Ripples of the Black Hawk War in Northern Indiana." Indiana Magazine of History 20 (September 1924): 288-307.

Lurie, Nancy O. "In Search of Chaetar: New Findings on Black Hawk's Surrender," Wisconsin Magazine of History 71 (1988); 163-83.

Nichols, Roger L. General Henry Atkinson: A Western Military Career. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1965.

Nichols, Roger L. Black Hawk and the Warrior's Path. Wheeling, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, Inc., 1992.

Nichols, Roger L. "The Black Hawk War: Another War Another View." Annals of Iowa 36 (Winter 1963): 525-533.

Parkinson, Peter. "Strictures upon Gov. Ford's History of the Black Hawk War." Annual Report and Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 2 (1856): 393-401.

Peck, Mrs. W. F. "Black Hawk: The Man,the Hero,the Patriot." Annals of Iowa, 3d series 2 (July 1896): 450-464.

Petersen, William J. "The Tama Indians in 1967." Palimpsest 48 (July.1967): 320.

Petersen, William J. "The Terms of Peace." Palimpsest 43 (February 1962): 95-lll.

Pratt, Harry E. "Abraham Lincoln in the Black Hawk War." In the John H. Hauberg Historical Essays, edited by O. Fritiof Ander, pp. 18-28. Rock Island, Illinois: Augustana College Library, 1954.

Prucha, Francis Paul. American Indian Policy in the Formative Years: The Indian Trade and Intercourse Acts, 1790-1834. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962.

Prucha, Francis Paul. The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians. 2 vols. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.

Prucha, Francis P. The Sword of the Republic: The United States Army on the Frontier, 1783-1846. New York: Macmillan, 1968.

Purcell, L. Edward. "The Mesquakle Indian Settlement in 1905." Palimpsest 55 (March-April 1974): 34-55.

Purcell, L. Edward. "The Ward-Mesquakie Photograph Collection."' Palimpsest 55 (March-April 1974.): 56-64.

Reising, Robert. "Jim Thorpe: Multicultural Hero." Indian Historian 7 (Fall 1974): 14-16.

Rideout, Henry Milner. William Jones: Indian, Cowboy, American Scholar, and Anthropologist in the Field. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1912.

Rogin, Michael Paul. "Liberal Society and the Indian Question." Politics and Society 1 (May 1971): 269-312.

Rogin, Michael Paul. Fathers and Children: Andrew Jackson and the Subjugation of the American Indian. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975.

Rooney, Elizabeth B. "The Story of the Black Hawk War."  Wisconsin Magazine of History 40 (Summer 1957): 274-283.

Satz, Ronald N. American Indian Policy in the Jacksonian Era. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1975.

Satz, Ronald N. "Indian Policy in the Jacksonian Era: The Old Northwest as a Test Case." Michigan Historical Review 60 (Spring 1976): 71-93.

Schmitz, Neil. "Wisconsin's Fox River Valley and the Mesquakie: A New Local History." Wisconsin Magazine of History 80 (Winter 1996-1997): 83-105.

Stark, William F. Along the Black Hawk Trail. Sheboygan, Wisc.: Zimmerman Press, 1984.

Smith, Henry. "Indian Campaign of 1832." Report and Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 10 (1909): 150 - 166.

Stevens, Frank E. The Black Hawk War, Including a Review of Black Hawk's Life. Chicago: Frank E. Stevens, 1903.

Stevens, Frank E. "A Forgotten Hero: General James Dougherty Henry." Illinois State Historical Society Transactions for the Year 1934, pp. 77-120.

Swisher, J. A. "Chief of the Sauks." Palimpsest 13 (February 1932): 41-54.Black Hawk.

Sugden, John. Tecumseh: A Life. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1997.

Temple, Wayne C. "Lincoln's Arms and Dress in the Black Hawk War." Lincoln Herald 71 (Winter 1969): 145-149.

Thwaites, Ruben Gold. "The Story of the Black Hawk War." Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 12 (8192): 217-265.

Vander Zee, Jacob. The Black Hawk War. Iowa City: State Historical Society of Iowa, 1918.

Vander Zee, Jacob. "The Black Hawk War and the Treaty of 1832." Iowa Journal of History and Politics 13 (July 1915) : 416 - 428.

Wakefield, John A. History of the War between the United States and the Sac and Fox Nations of Indians and Parts of Other Disaffected Tribes of Indians, in the Years Eighteen Hundred and Twenty-Seven, Thirty-One, and Thirty-Two. Jacksonville, Illinois: Calvin Goudy, 1834. Reprinted as Wakefield's History of the Black Hawk War. Edited by Frank E. Stevens. Chicago: Caxton Club, 1908.

Wallace, Anthony F. C. "Prelude to Disaster: The Course of Indian-White Relations Which Led to the Black Hawk War of 1832," in The Black Hawk War, 1831-1832, ed. Ellen M. Whitney, 1: 1-51. Springfield: Illinois State Historical Society, 1970.

Wallace, Anthony F. C. Jefferson and the Indians: The Tragic Fate of the First Americans. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Ward, Duren J. H. "Meskwakia." Iowa Journal of History and Politics 4 (April 1906); 178-189.

Warrick, W. Sheridan. "The American Indian Policy in the Upper Old Northwest Following the War of 1812." Ethno history 3 (Spring 1956): 109-25.

White, Richard. The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Willig, Timothy D. "Prophetstown on the Wabash: The Native Spiritual Defense of the Old Northwest." Michigan Historical Review 23 (Fall 1997): 115-58. 

Reference Works

Fredriksen, John C., comp. Shield of Republic/Sword of Empire: A Bibliography of United States Military Affairs, 1783-1846. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1990.

Kennell, Susan K., ed. Military History of the United States: An Annotated Bibliography. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 1986.

Prucha, Francis Paul. Atlas of American Indian Affairs. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990.

Prucha, Francis Paul. A Bibliographical Guide to the History of Indian-White Relations in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977.

Prucha, Francis P. A Guide to the Military Posts of the United States, 1789-1895. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1964.

Prucha, Francis Paul. Indian-White Relations in the United States: A Bibliography of Works Published, 1975-1980. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982.

Prucha, Francis P. United States Indian Policy: A Critical Bibliography. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977.

Tanner, Helen Hornbeck, ed. Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.